TEREZÍN MEMORIAL (PAMÁTNÍK TEREZÍN)
Petit Futé's opinion on TEREZÍN MEMORIAL (PAMÁTNÍK TEREZÍN)
Created in 1947 by the Czech government, the memorial retains the site of the transit camp as it was in the time of Nazi terror. To visit it, you must visit different places of memory, which are relatively scattered in the territory of the commune of Terezin.
Police prison in the little fortress. In 1940, the Nazis opened a prison in the small fortress built in the th century for the military city. 32 000 prisoners, 90% Czech and Slovak prisoners (but also British prisoners of war, French opponents, German opponents of the Nazi regime) were seized before being sent to death camp or brought before a court. 2 600 people died of malnutrition, disease and exhaustion. Every year, the living conditions of the prisoners clamped. Most worked outside the prison, in Nazi companies, contributing to the war effort of the Reich. From 1943 onwards, the Nazis procédèrent to executions without trial; 250 people were firing between 1943 and 1945. But in the evening, in their cells, prisoners met secretly to give meaning to their suppressed existence. Theresienstadt was a camp of artists and intellectuals opposed to the regime and held recitals, readings, plays, concerts and, under the guidance of rabbis and priests themselves, des of prayer. The exhibition of the little fortress shows some of the thousands of drawings and poems executed by prisoners, who found a way to overcome the horror of their daily lives.
The museum of the ghetto. From November 1941, in the framework of the Nazi Final Solution, which was supposed to lead to the total abolition of the Jewish community, the Nazis pourchassèrent the Jews of Central Europe and gradually déportèrent them to Theresienstadt, where they settled them first in the barracks of the camp (Magdeburg Barracks). In 1942, the Nazis forcibly forced the city of Terezin and réquisitionnèrent the buildings to lock more Jews into it; soon, greniers, cellars and even the bunkers of the ramparts were flooded with prisoners. Over the life of the ghetto of Theresienstadt, 155 000 people were interned in these atrocious conditions, subjected to deplorable hygiene and starvation. However, the Nazi commandanture left a certain cultural and artistic freedom to its victims, in order to conceal the true nature of their imprisonment, the last step before deportation and extermination. The Jews and Jewish artists of the ghetto made it less unbearable, thanks to the organisation of cultural events authorized by the Nazis. Unfortunately, while convoys carried out other prisoners every day, other trains were leaving, taking Jews from the ghetto to the unknown. 87 000 of them were deported to Auschwitz; only 3 800 of them survived.
The Jewish cemetery and crematorium. The dead of the ghetto and police prison were buried there in individual graves or mass graves. In September 1942, the Nazis also built a crematorium where 30 000 dead were burned. The urnes containing the ashes were installed in columbaria, but the Nazis destroyed them before the end of the war.
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Opening time and information on TEREZÍN MEMORIAL (PAMÁTNÍK TEREZÍN)
Small fortress open every day from 8am to 4.30pm from November to the end of March, from 8am to 6pm from April to October. Museum of the ghetto and barracks of Magdeburg open every day from 9am to 5.30pm from November to March, from 9am to 6pm from April to the end of October. Rates: single ticket for the small fortress OR the ghetto museum 180 Kč, reduced 150 Kč. Ticket combined with small fortress, ghetto museum and Magdeburg huts 220 Kč, reduced 170 Kč.